The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology is one of the biggest science and engineering research institutions in Europe and funded jointly by the Federal Republic of Germany and the State of Baden-Wuerttemberg. Its research and development program is embedded in the superordinate program structure of the Hermann von Helmholtz Association of National Research Centers.
The main objective of the institute involved in the project (“Institute for Nuclear Waste Disposal (INE)”) is safety research for radioactive waste disposal by investigation of geochemical processes relevant for long-term behavior of waste forms and (geo-)technical and natural barriers. This research contributes to demonstration of safety within the disposal Safety Case for all types of host rock under consideration.
Amphos 21 Consulting S.L. is a privately held scientific environmental consultancy with 20 years of experience in the field of nuclear waste management and a team of highly qualified professional specialized in the related scientific and technical disciplines.
Amphos 21 has been involved in European projects from the 4th Framework Programme and has a vast experience in experimental research and in the advanced modelling of the source term through the different compartments, such as the near-field and geosphere of nuclear waste repositories.
BRGM acts as the French Geological Survey, public institution with industrial feature, and embraces activities inthe field of applied Earth Sciences, e.g. geology, hydrology, hydrogeology, geochemistry, geophysics, biotechnologies, hydrometallurgy, and analytical chemistry. The BRGM Storage and deep geological settings Unit (SVP) has acquired internationally renowned experience in several fields including coupled geochemistry-transport modelling, validation of the concepts of storages (in particular for the nuclear waste), transfers of pollutants in the environment, performances of the barriers and durability of materials of the artificial barriers. Its main activity is oriented to the characterisation of the nuclear waste storage environment, in France as well as in other European countries.
British Geological Survey is the principal national supplier of geological expertise in the UK. In particular, the Fluid Processes Research (FPR) laboratories have extensive experience working on a range of aspects relating to the multi-phase flow of fluids through clay-rich materials and the impact fracturing has on transport properties. The FPR laboratories have a proven track-record of applied research over the previous 20 years in geological underground disposal of high level radioactive waste, unconventional hydrocarbons, carbon capture & storage (CCS), underground gas storage, landfill liner studies, as well as exploratory scientific studies on multi-phase flow. The BGS currently has an active research programme examining aspects of the mechanical controls on hydraulic fracturing, rock stress, and multi-phase flow cements, mudrocks and other engineered barriers.
CIEMAT is a Spanish Public Research Institution under the Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO) (www.ciemat.es). Since its founding in 1951, it has developed and led R&D projects in the fields of Energy, Environment and Technology, placing the institution at the forefront of science and technology. As a technological research center CIEMAT fosters links between academia and industry.
Two CIEMAT groups are involved in the project: the Applied Environmental Geology Unit (CIEMAT-AEG) and the Physico-Chemistry of Actinides and Fission Products Unit (CIEMAT-PAFP), both of the Environment Department of CIEMAT. During the last decade, both groups participated in many projects related to the research on radioactive waste repositories and radionuclide transport processes, including National R&D Programs financed by ENRESA (the Spanish National Agency for Radioactive Waste Management), the Nuclear Safety Council, and in European Union Programs in both R&D and the EURATOM Treaty. CIEMAT is specialist on material characterisation, and the identification and modelling of the processes determining the long-term behaviour of a high-level radioactive waste repository.
Delft University of Technology (TU Delft) is a multifaceted institution offering education and research in the technical sciences at an internationally recognized level. TU Delft comprises eight faculties, unique laboratories, research institutes and schools, and is a participant of the IGD-TP.
The research section Nuclear Energy and Radiation Applications (NERA) belongs to the department of Radiation Science and Technology (RST) of TU Delft. The research in the section focuses on the design of innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles, and includes experimental and theoretical studies on the nuclear fuel cycle chemistry and nuclear waste.
NERA works in close collaboration with Dutch waste management organization COVRA and is currently involved in the research and educational activities of the OPERA program (geological disposal in Boom clay formations).
Forschungszentrum Jülich pursues cutting-edge interdisciplinary research on pressing issues facing society today. With its competence in materials science and simulation, and its expertise in physics, nanotechnology, and information technology, as well as in the biosciences and brain research, FZJ is developing the basis for the key technologies of tomorrow. Forschungszentrum Jülich is also breaking new ground in the form of strategic partnerships with universities, research institutions, and industry in Germany and abroad. With more than 5,500 employees, FZJ – a member of the Helmholtz Association – is one of the large interdisciplinary research centres in Europe.
The work programme will be performed in the Institute for Energy and Climate Research – Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety (IEK-6), which is mainly involved in R&D concerning the safety of nuclear waste management (characterisation, treatment, and (geological) disposal, as well as partitioning/transmutation) as well as the safety of nuclear reactors and installations of the fuel cycle.
The experimental program developed in the frame of CEBAMA project will be performed in the Institute for Nuclear Research, subsidiary of the state owned company Regia Autonoma Tehnologii pentru Energia Nucleara. The Institute for Nuclear Research (RATEN-ICN) is a complex R&D centre created in 1971 to provide the scientific and technical support to the national nuclear energy program. Its activity covers a wide range of nuclear fields such as nuclear safety, nuclear fuel and materials, reactor physics, radioactive waste, radioprotection. Under the Radioactive Waste Management Program, the RATEN-ICN specialists developed treatment and conditioning technologies for LLW/ILW, established and applied new methodologies for waste characterization, in parallel with performance and safety assessments mainly for the LLW/ILW disposal of the operational waste.
The Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (Petten the Netherlands), Unit Radiation and Environment, has a long term experience in all aspects concerning Geological Radioactive Waste disposal, ranging from performance assessment to detailed technical processes. NRG is research partner and leader of a large number of EU funded projects in this area.
Radioactive Waste Management Funding and Research Centre (RWMC), established in 1975 is the only Japanese organization specialized in radioactive waste management and has been conducting two major roles: R&D for radioactive waste management in Japan, and fund administration for radioactive waste disposal of HLW and TRU waste and SF reprocessing.
RWMC has been contributing to some national projects on the geological disposal of TRU and HLW in Japan. Interactions between cementitious and bentonitic materials is an issue of that project.
The Belgian Nuclear Research Centre is a public utility foundation with more than 600 employees. Priority is given to research on the safety of nuclear installations, radiation protection, safe treatment and disposal of radioactive waste, education and training.
SCK•CEN began R&D on geological disposal in clay in 1974 and since then has been an active participant in all EC FP's and the R&D programs of ONDRAF-NIRAS, performing R&D on many aspects of near-field and far-field processes including laboratory experiments, modelling, in-situ tests and PA. SCK•CEN was a pioneer on diffusion studies in natural clay systems and has many long-term running migration studies in lab as well as in-situ. The Performance Assessment unit performs, beside scoping, performance and safety studies of radio-active waste disposal system, coupled modeling of the evolution, phenomenology and behavior of different components in the engineered barriers in the system and the interaction with the environment.
In 2011 SCK•CEN started a project in collaboration with UGent (Magnel lab for concrete research) and TU Delft (microlab) to investigate the key processes affecting the long-term durability of concrete materials.
ARMINES is a private non-profit research and technological organisation (RTO) funded in 1967 at the instigation of its partner engineering schools, the Ecoles des Mines network. ARMINES currently shares 48 Joint Research Units (Common Research Centres) with its partner schools, where each legal entity, either private or public, provides personnel, investment and operating resources for common research purpose. Under the supervision of the French Ministry for Productive Recovery, ARMINES is bound by French government-approved agreements to its partner schools of the Ecoles des Mines network: Paris (Mines ParisTech), Albi-Carmaux (Mines Albi-Carmaux), Alès (Mines Alès), Douai (Mines Douai), Nantes (Mines Nantes) and Saint-Etienne (ENSM-SE). ARMINES also collaborates with ENSTA ParisTech.
In this specific context, ARMINES operates within the framework of the law of 18 April 2006 which allows public sector higher education or research establishments to entrust private-sector organisations with their contractual research activities.
In terms of European activity, ARMINES and its partner schools are involved in European projects since 1994 (FP4) and obtained, within FP7, 11 projects as coordinator and 87 as partner.
ÚJV Řež, a.s. (UJV, former Nuclear Research Institute Rez) main mission is to remain the key technical-engineering body contributing to the development of long-term sustainable power supply in the Czech Republic and to be a significant part of the European Research Area in the field of nuclear energy.
The activities of the Fuel Cycle Chemistry Department are focused primarily on supporting SURAO in the development of long-term R&D programme for Deep Geological Repository. The activities include laboratory and field experiments for quantification of migration and geochemical processes (sorption, diffusion) and laboratory experiments for quantification of degradation rates of spent fuel, waste forms and engineered barriers (disposal container materials, backfill and buffer materials). Environmental safety performance and risk analyses of geological disposal systems (behaviour, migration of radionuclides and toxic substances in near field and far field of disposal facilities and their environmental impacts) play also an important part in the Department programme.
The University of A Coruña, UDC, is one of the three universities of the Galice (Spain). The UDC currently has 45 departments, 7 Institutes, offers 27 masters, 41 doctoral programs and hosts spin-off incubators and technological parks.
The group of Hydrology at the Civil Engineering School led by Prof. Javier Samper was created in 1993 and since then it has been involved in R&D Projects of the EURATOM Program funded by the European Commission. This group has a strong background and experience on the development and application of THC(m) models for coupled water flow, heat and multicomponent reactive nuclide and transport through porous media taking into account the role of microbial processes. The group has developed and tested several powerful computer codes, some of which are specifically devoted for the compacted bentonite buffer of the near field. Such models were developed and applied in most European URL’s and funded by EU projects since the 3rd EC Program such as CERBERUS, FEBEX, BENIPA, NFPRO, FUNMIG, PAMINA and PEBS.
Loughborough University is a higher education establishment in Central England with 2,500 staff and 16,000 students The Radiochemistry Research Group (RRG) has an international reputation and much of its work is carried out in collaboration with other UK and European scientists. Sponsors include the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA), research councils (EPSRC, NERC), EC and commercial organisations. Facilities are divided into research, teaching, the commercially- operated Enviras laboratory, which is UKAS accredited for analytical services, and a fully-equipped mobile radiochemistry laboratory.
The Faculty of Civil Engineering of CTU is one of the largest schools providing civil engineering university education with approximately 5500 students. The Centre of Experimental Geotechnics (CEG) is a department of the Faculty focusing on geotechnical laboratory tests as well as on in-situ experiments. It operates Underground Research Centre Josef and accredited geotechnical laboratory. The faculty accredited laboratory focuses mainly on mechanical testing of building materials (concrete, steel, soil, rock, asphalt…).
In the Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering (FNSPE) a complex approach to all nuclear branches is being intended. Research activities of the Department of Nuclear Chemistry (DNS) cover the majority of the fields within the traditional definition of nuclear sciences – radiochemistry including its separation methods, radioanalytical chemistry, radiotracers techniques and chemistry of actinides. The DNC has been integrated into several international EURATOM FP6 or FP7 integrated projects such as ACSEPT, EUROPART, or FUNMIG.
The University of Sheffield is a higher education and research organization with approximately 6,500 employees, 18,000 undergraduate and 9,000 postgraduate students. UFSD was founded in 1905 and ranks in the top ten UK universities, with > 93% of research assessed as internationally leading.
The Department of Materials Science and Engineering is one of the largest centers for materials research in the UK. Within the Department, the Immobilisation Science Laboratory (ISL) is the largest academic R&D group in the UK, focused on radioactive waste management and disposal, with ca. 6 academic staff, 8 research associates and 35 PhD students. The research competency of the ISL includes: design, fabrication and performance assessment of radioactive wasteforms, the interaction of engineered and natural barrier systems, and thermodynamic modelling of materials alteration in aqueous media. The ISL has supported national waste management organisations and disposal authorities (e.g. Sellafield Ltd, Nuclear Decommissioning Authority, Radioactive Waste Management Ltd) in the conditioning, packaging and disposability assessment of radioactive wastes. ISL has an R&D order book exceeding £15M, from government, industry and EU sources, and collaborates strongly with research end users in industry and implementation authorities in the EU and USA.
VTT Group is the largest public applied research activity in Northern Europe with a staff of 2600 and turnover of M€ 279. VTT has 70 years of experience in addressing the needs of industry and the knowledge-based society. Over the years, VTT has participated in more than 1000 European R&D Framework Programme projects, within various thematic programmes. VTT is currently involved in six FP7 Euratom projects and is an active member of IGD-TP. VTT has partnership agreements and works in close cooperation with both Posiva Oy and the Finnish Nuclear Regulatory Authority (STUK). VTT is a multi-technological research organisation providing high-end technology solutions and innovation services.
The division of VTT concrete and geotechnical material research has been active for over 60 years. There are over 30 researchers and technicians studying concrete and clay properties, including almost every aspect, from nanoscale cement chemistry to metric-scale concrete structural experiments. Durability and long-term behaviour are also key focus areas, coupled with multi-scale modeling and safety assessments. Their research environment consists of over 250 m2 of laboratory space including all key analytical equipment. Laboratories range from large-scale structural testing to mixing facilities, with emphasis on hydration, rheology, chemical attack and mechanical properties. Three laboratories are well-established for each topic of chemical, microscopy and nano-structural assessment.
The Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V. (HZDR) is a member of the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres. It conducts internationally highly ranking research in the sectors Health, Energy and Matter.
The Institute of Resource Ecology (IRE) contributes to the research on essential ecological aspects of the distribution and transport of radionuclides and metals in the geo- and biosphere, and on the safety of reactors. As part of it, the Reactive Transport Division focuses on reactive transport studies in natural geological material by means of radiotracer applications on laboratory scale and their complementary numerical modelling.
The University of Lille I is a public non-profit establishment for high education and scientific research.
The Laboratory of Mechanics of Lille is a public non-profit research organization under the tutor of the University of Lille I, the CNRS, the Ecole Centrale Lille and the Arts et Metiers/Paris-Tech. The research team THMC of the LML, directly involved in Cebama project, has been working for many years on the experimental investigation and multi-scale modelling of cement-based materials with thermo-hydromechanical and chemical coupling. It is one of the leading teams in France on this field.
The Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (Autonomous University of Madrid, UAM) was created in 1971 with five faculties (Sciences, Politics and Economics, Law, Philosophy and Medicine). This public institution became in 2009 an Excellence International UAM+CSIC Campus, which represents a sum of research efforts joined with the Council of Scientific Research in Spain (CSIC). This campus includes a technological center and high quality general research services.
A research group in the Department of Geology and Geochemistry in the Faculty of Sciences is devoted to the study of geochemical reactions in the clay-waste system. The group has expertise, acquired during at least 20 years, in mineralogy and geochemistry of clay minerals (sheet silicates, oxides, zeolites, salts…). In this field, the group manages the main techniques used for materials characterization, including XRD, surface analysis and electron and optical microscopy. In addition, the group characterizes aqueous chemistry parameters and makes other routine measurements with the purpose to determine different phases involved in interface reactions.
The group has capacity in the lab to perform small experimental setups to study interface reactivity, for instance, within the concrete-bentonite contact by means of preparation of micro-interface domains for observation. The group has been working in several cement-clay related projects over the last decades (ECOCLAY UE projects phases I and II), and more recently in NF-PRO and PEBS EU projects, studying concrete/bentonite interfaces and incorporating bentonite/iron interfaces, in coordination with the group at CIEMAT.
CSIC, www.csic.es, is an autonomous agency within the MCinistry of Economy and Competitiveness with own legal status and assets. It is the largest public multidisciplinary and multisectorial Spanish research organization and the 3rd in Europe. Its main objective is to foster, coordinate, develop and promote Scientific and Technical research to contribute on the advancing knowledge and economic, social and cultural development. The CSIC collaborates with national and international universities, public R&D and technological organizations, SMEs, Trusts and other Institutions of a scientific/technical nature.
The Institute for Construction Sciences “Eduardo Torroja” (IETcc) belongs to CSIC. The IETcc is specialized in physic-chemistry of cement and concrete and other building materials, but also deals with structural engineering, roads and energy saving.
The background of the CSIC-IETcc is thoroughly in cements and concretes at micro and macro level that includes design, evaluation of cement hydration processes, study of their physic-chemistry and mechanical performance, and also those problems related to concrete long-term durability, such as saline water interaction processes and high temperature concrete resistance. They have also experience in reinforcement corrosion and assessment of service life of damaged structures. The group has worked in depth in the design of several special cementitious materials.
Andra, the French National Agency for Radioactive Waste Management, is a public industrial and commercial organization created by the Act of 30 December 1991 (Nuclear Act related to Nuclear Waste Management). Its overall responsibilities include conducting research within a national program on a deep geological repository (concept designs and long term evolution) for high level and long lived, intermediate level radioactive wastes.
It also has an industrial responsibility of operating the disposal facilities for short lived, low and intermediate level radioactive wastes, as well as very low level wastes.
The Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) is a multi-disciplinary research center for natural sciences and technology. In national and international collaboration with universities, other research institutes and industry, PSI is active in solid state physics, materials sciences, elementary particle physics, life sciences, nuclear and non-nuclear energy research, and energy-related ecology.
The Laboratory of Waste Management of PSI (LES) carries out a nuclear waste management R&D program on behalf of the Federal Government and Nagra. The emphasis is on fundamental geochemistry, speciation, sorption and modeling of geochemistry in combination with transport processes.
The Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern (UNIBERN), is a medium-size Earth Science institute operating a wide range of modern analytical and experimental facilities. Specifically, the Rock-Water Interaction Group is focusing on research applied to deep disposal of radioactive waste and co-operates internationally, including activities in Underground Research Laboratories. The focus is on gathering and interpreting large geoscientific data sets (e.g. from deep drilling), and carrying out fundamental research, for example in the fields of clay mineralogy, mineral analysis, geochemistry, isotope geochemistry, reactive transport processes, including laboratory experiments and modelling. The laboratory of experimental Rock-Water Interaction features triax-type core percolation equipment, some of it transparent for in-situ computed X-ray tomography. The Institute operates its own machine shop for development and construction of specialized equipment. Analytical facilities include a full range of instruments for analysis of pore waters, mineralogy and physical parameters. The group is involved in teaching at all levels, and PhD and MSc Projects are an integral part. Most group members are funded by external research contracts, with a 30-year history of experience and international research cooperation.
IRSN (Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire) is the French TSO. As part of its general mission, it provides technical support to the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN). In the general frame of safety evaluation of the French deep geological repository (DGR) for ILLL and HL radioactive waste, IRSN conducts R&D programs to support its expertise. IRSN has experience for 15 years in clay/concrete interactions study through different projects as TRASSE (with CNRS) or the CI experiment (Mont Terri). IRSN aims to cross-fertilize its studies with studies carried out by other research teams (large panel of specialists studying interfaces systems). IRSN has launched a project named CEMTEX (CEMent Temperature Experiment) in its URL in order to obtain interfaces between clay and cement pastes at 70 °C after 1, 2 and 5 years of interaction.
EMPA is an interdisciplinary research institution for material sciences within the ETH Domain. The Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry performs both fundamental and application oriented research in the topics of hydration, solid phase characterization and thermodynamic modelling of cementitious materials.
With its expertise in cement chemistry EMPA is the ideal partner for studies of the formation and stability of Se and S containing solid solutions such as AFm phases in cementitious environments.
The University of Surrey is one of the UK’s top professional, scientific and technological universities with 2,500 staff and more than 15,000 students. The Department of Chemistry has an international reputation and their research is supported by a wide variety of funding agencies and by industry. Sources of recent grants have included: the UK Research Councils (BBSRC, EPSRC), government departments (MoD, DTI), international bodies (the European Commission, NATO), and large companies such as GlaxoWellcome and Nycomed-Amersham.